Because the simulation involves inconveniently small values, such as the charge of an electron, Coulombs, or the mass of a Mg ion, kg ( amu), numbers were expressed in ``reduced units'' which scale values to easier-to-deal-with magnitudes. Simulation values were expressed in the following system of units:

- 1 mass unit = mass of one ion--- this eliminates calculations
converting force to acceleration and velocity expressions to kinetic
energy, since
- 1 length unit = = m= m for traps whose dimensions are on the order of m.
- 1 energy unit = eV J where
**e**is the charge of one electron and is the permittivity constant, F/m. This unit of energy simplifies calculations involving the Coulomb interaction.

Fri May 12 10:36:01 EDT 1995